Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Panduan Penulisan Laporan Amali (Eviden Peka) Biologi

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Element 1

1. Aim: 
a) experiment that has variables: To investigate/To study/To determine …… (relation between mv and rv)
e.g: To study the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. 

b) experiment does not have variables: To identify…….
e.g To identify the structure of plant cells and animal cells.

2. Problem statement:
a) experiment that has variables: What/How/Does …… (relation between mv and rv) ?

b) experiment does not have variables: What ………?
e.g: What are the structures that can be observed in plant cells and animal cells?

3. Hypothesis:
State the relationship between mv and rv
e.g: The higher the light intensity, the higher the rate of photosynthesis.

4. Variables:
State the mv. rv, and cv 

5. Materials and apparatus:
List all the materials and apparatus that used to carry out the experiment.

6. Technique used:
State the method and apparatus used to get the rv or result
e.g: Measuring and recording the final length of potato strips by using a ruler.

7. Procedure:
List all the procedures to carry out the experiment. The procedures can be written in passive or active form. All the procedures must include the criteria listed below:
  • K1: preparing the materials and apparatus. e.g 5ml of 10% sucrose solution are put into the test tube A to G respectively.
  • K2: cv. e.g All the seven potato strips are cut into 3cm length.
  • K3: mv e.g.The step 2 and 3 are repeated by using 20%, 30% and 40% sucrose solution 
  • K4: rv / result. e.g The final length of potato strips are measured and recorded.
  • K5: precaution step: e.g make sure there are no bubbles trapped under the glass cover.

Note: K2 and K3 are not required for experiment that does not have variables


Element 3: Presentation of data

1) Diagram
a. Has title, labelled (at least 2 structures)
b. Size: More than half of A4 sized paper
c. Smooth drawing. No sketch.
d. Use a plain paper.

2) Table
a. Column for mv and rv have title and unit
b. Complete data
c. Calculation:
  • correct formula 
  • correct data transfer into the formula
  • correct calculation

3) Graph
a. Has title. e.g graph of rv against mv
b. Both axis have title and unit
c. Uniform scale
d. Data plotted correctly
e. Smooth line graph (freehand drawing, no ruler, no edge) / all bars have same width.


Element 4: Discussion and conclusion

1) Discussion
a. Interprete the data / state at least 2 observations (minimum and maximum data) and give inferences. e.g The length of potato strip is 2.5cm when immersed in 40% of sucrose solution because 40% of sucrose solution is hypertonic to the cell cap of potato strip. The water flows out from cell sap to the sucrose solution.

b. State the relationship between mv and rv. e.g  When the sucrose solution is more concentrated, the length of potato strip is become shorter.
Note:  #b is not required for experiment that has no variables

2) Conclusion
a. State whether the hypothesis is accepted or not
b. Restate the hypothesis.
or
c. Statement that concludes all the observations. (for experiment that has no variables)

THE END


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